Prostate cancer isn't preventable but there are things that you can do that may reduce the risk. These are called protective factors.

Unlike other types of cancer that have clear protective factors (for example, not smoking to prevent lung cancer), there is no evidence to show that there are clear protective factors for prostate cancer. However, there is evidence suggesting that there are things that can be done to improve overall health and therefore possibly reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

Some examples of protective factors include the following:


There is no evidence to suggest that there is an ideal diet for reducing prostate cancer risk. However, eating more fruit and vegetables and less meat may be important, and this approach is part of looking after your health.

In general, the Australian Dietary Guidelines suggest:

  • eat plenty of vegetables, legumes/beans and fruit
  • eat wholegrain (cereal) food such as bread, pasta, rice , noodles
  • eat lean meat, fish and poultry as well as other protein sources such as tofu – include milk, yoghurt and cheese (reduced or low fat)
  • drink plenty of water
  • limit saturated fat such as biscuits, cakes, pies processed meats
  • limit added salt
  • limit added sugars such as confectionary, sugar-sweetened soft drinks
  • limit alcohol

The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating diagram shows the type of food and portions recommended.

Physical activity

There is evidence to show regular physical activity and exercises can be protective factors for prostate cancer and improve overall health.

4.2.4Healthy Eating Guide

Image reproduced with permission of the National Health and Medical Research Council